ISSN 2283-7558


Valeria Farinelli


Architetto e Dottore di Ricerca in Ingegneria Gestionale ed Estimo. Membro del Centro Ricerca A>E del Dipartimento di Architettura di Ferrara

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Questo contributo vuole approfondire il tema relativo allo studio del comportamento dei valutatori di Ville Venete, in modo particolare si sofferma sulle loro scelte, quando chiamati ad esprimere giudizi a livello teorico, senza un bene concreto con cui confrontarsi. A tale scopo è stato utilizzato un modello di valutazione multi-attributo, nello specifico un approccio gerarchico (Analytic Hierarchy Process_AHP), procedura fondata sull’ipotesi che il valore unitario di stima dei beni oggetto di studio possa essere espresso in funzione delle loro singole caratteristiche definibili quali criteri e sotto-criteri.

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This research wants to check how the valuers' choices can change when the judgments are taken on a hypothetical level, because it does not exist a comparable asset.
For this purpose, a multi-attribute model was used, specifically, an Analytic Hierarchy Process_AHP. The multi-criteria analysis is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to analyse a problem from different perspectives, such as, that economic, social, aesthetic, historical and administrative.
The multi-criteria analysis, therefore, is structured to support the decision-making, to identify areas with more or less opportunities, highlight the priorities and the differences between the options and define the best resource allocation to reach the initial goal.
It may be useful to identify the values, formulate objectives, identify alternatives, analyse the impacts and build a valuation model.
The AHP tool can be applied in the resolution of estimation problems, and in the context of the analysis of the enhancement projects of public assets, including interventions on cultural, environmental resources.
It is based on the assumption that the asset value can be expressed as a function of their characteristics, called criteria and sub-criteria. It is a decision support system based on multiple criteria, capable of treating a large number of different factors. The first step of this method involves the construction of a hierarchy of dominance. This is a reticular structure composed of two or more levels. The first level contains the goal, in this case, it is the impact of individual characteristics on the value of a Venetian Villa.
The valuation was realized using a panel of experts about historical assets, in particular Venetian Villas. They completed a questionnaire that was based on pairwise comparison of each criteria and sub-criteria, and, thanks to the combination of the average scores, it has been possible to build the hierarchy of incidence for each variable. The elements of each pair are compared in order to determine which of them is most important in relation to the element in higher-level.

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Le variabili significative nel caso delle Ville Venete

Definito il concetto di “bene culturale” e dei valori che esso incarna, è necessario studiare quali strumenti possano essere impiegati per attuare e concretizzare progetti di valorizzazione di siti di interesse storico, nello specifico il processo di alienazione. Risultano, perciò, determinanti il momento della stima ed il ruolo del valutatore.
Si vuole, quindi, studiare il processo di stima e la formazione della funzione di valutazione della tipologia edilizia Villa Veneta. Attraverso lo strumento di regressione si analizzano le caratteristiche dell’immobile che risultano essere maggiormente significative per individuare il più probabile valore di mercato.

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The significant variables in Venetian Villas

For over a century, the condition of abandonment of the historical heritage has been the center of political and legal discussions. The historical heritage enhancement has been mainly treated focusing on the concept of cultural heritage, as presented by regulations, which have taken place from the 800s to the present day. This showed that over time an awareness of the economic value of those assets, and the need for their conservation and enhancement, has developed.
After defining the concept of cultural heritage and its values, the paper explores the tools used for implementing the enhancement projects, in particular, the alienation process. As regards the latter, the valuation moment and the role of the valuer become strategic.
This paper aims to underline how the historical assets are totally heterogeneous and dissimilar, and for this reason, consolidated valuation techniques do not exist in literature or in practice. It is, therefore, necessary to dwell on the study of a particular historical building type, such as that of the Venetian Villas. They are widespread in the territories included between the regions of Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia, and represent a unique architectural testimony, in national and international context, of a process of an urban civilization rootedness (Republic of Venice) in a rural area. The Venetian nobility, from the XIV century, bought properties and invested significant amounts in agriculture. In those properties, villas were built assuming the double function of place of leisure and center of the farm. The traditional techniques for historical buildings valuation have to deal with many issues, such as externalities, intangible effects, long-term perspective so that it is quite difficult to value a cultural asset. For instance, the Market comparison approach requires a series of historical data that are not always easy to find, while the Discounted Cash Flow Analysis that applies only to cases where a detailed transformation project already exists, and the Cost Approach, that considers appreciation added percentages, often arbitrary, to emphasize the property artistic value.
Therefore, the rationality and the behavior of the valuers of this type of assets were explored, focusing on the study of the valuation process and function, with the application of multiple linear regression, analyzing, its results and data relating to the variance.

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Alienazione, strumento attuativo di valorizzazione

Le motivazioni che inducono all’approfondimento del tema relativo ai beni culturali nascono dall’ingente numero di edifici storici presenti sull’intero territorio nazionale e in molti altri Paesi europei e dalla condizione, spesso di degrado, in cui versa.
Ma che cosa si intende per bene culturale, come viene definito e quali caratteristiche ha?
Nel tempo architetti e legislatori hanno cercato di fornirne una definizione e negli ultimi anni è risultata chiara l’urgenza di intervenire per far sì che questi beni, o in alcuni casi, ciò che resta di essi, non siano l’espressione di incuria e abbandono, ma, con interventi di recupero e valorizzazione, testimonianza di un passato storico ed artistico.

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Alienation as an instrument for enhancement

The reasons to study the theme relating to cultural heritage are born by the huge number of historic buildings on the whole national territory and in many other European countries and by their condition, often of degradation.
But what does cultural asset mean? How is it defined and what features does it have?
Over the years, some architects, engineers and legislators have tried to give a definition of cultural heritage and recently they have considered urgent to ensure that these goods, or in some case ruins, aren’t an expression of carelessness and negligence, but, with recovery and enhancement, they become an evidence of an historical and artistic past.
The cultural heritage includes a set of historical assets that have an artistic or architectural value. This set consists of museums, churches, castles and palaces, that are characterized by artistic and historical values, monuments, libraries, art galleries, museums, galleries, historic sites and landscapes.
The historical and artistic assets are unique, heterogeneous, inseparable, irreplaceable and bearers of intangible and tangible benefits; and even if they are private they have many characteristics of public goods. They are available in limited and fixed quantities, non-increasable, passed by history, so aren’t substitutable. As public goods, they are characterized by non-rivalry in use among the different users and non- excludability of certain individuals from their benefits.
The historical heritage, in many cases unfortunately, needs of urgent actions for the conservation, restoration and enhancement, for their condition of neglect, decay and absence of any kind of ordinary and extraordinary maintenance.
The disuse and the lack of conservation, however, reset their original function and produce extra costs due to loss of economic, environmental, cultural and historical function and to the relocation of the lost functions on other areas, to the depreciation of near assets, to risks to human health and  life quality.
The enhancement activity, therefore, becomes essential and necessary.
The enhancement doesn’t mean, therefore, only adding value to what is already its owns, but also rediscovering existing ones; and one of the most used implementation tools, especially by public administrations, is the alienability.



Dalle prime norme al Codice attualmente vigente

La condizione, spesso, di abbandono e mancata conservazione in cui versa il patrimonio storico italiano è divenuta un’emergenza nazionale. Questo contributo vuole presentare, con un’ottica storico-evolutiva, gli strumenti normativi emanati negli anni sul tema della valorizzazione, nonché gli obiettivi che il legislatore ha voluto perseguire.

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From the adoption of the first laws to the present legal code

The condition of neglect and lack of preservation of the architectural heritage is considered a national emergency.
Through a historical-evolutionary view, this paper aims at presenting the regulatory instruments that have been developed over the years about the topic of enhancement and the different aims that the legislature has intended to pursue.