ISSN 2283-7558

emacchioni

Elena Macchioni

Autore

Architetto, specialista in beni architettonici e paesaggio. Dottoranda del corso di Dottorato in Conservazione dei beni architettonici (DASTU), Politecnico di Milano.

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TURISMO SOSTENIBILE E GESTIONE DELLE AREE PROTETTE

Coinvolgimento delle comunità locali nella Valle di Viñales, Cuba

Il riconoscimento del valore dei molteplici caratteri della valle di Viñales a Cuba ha portato alla compresenza di diversi tipi di protezione (Monumento Nazionale, Area protetta, Paesaggio Culturale, Parco Nazionale) con obiettivi e strumenti propri, che devono ad oggi confrontarsi con dinamiche quali la crescente dipendenza dell’economia della zona dal settore turistico e una (prima e parziale) liberalizzazione delle attività private. Il coinvolgimento delle comunità che risiedono all’interno dell’area protetta risulta un fattore determinante per la conservazione del “paesaggio vivente”.

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ECO-TOURISM AND INVOLVEMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS

The case of Viñales Valley, Cuba

The Viñales area is a natural karst landscape, dotted by limestone outcrops, displaying a rich biodiversity and endemism. The valley is shaped by tobacco cultivations and the farming is characterized by the perpetuation of traditional agricultural systems, being highly representative of Cuban rural culture.
The recognition of the several significant values of the Valley has resulted in the coexistence of various types of protection (National Monument, Protected Area, Cultural Landscape, National Park) with different boundaries, and specific objectives and tools.



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USO E RIFUNZIONALIZZAZIONE DEI TULOU DEL FUJIAN

Ricerca dell'autenticità e sfide del turismo

Il caso dei tulou del Fujian è esemplificativo di un fenomeno complesso nell'ambito della tutela del patrimonio. La difficoltà di applicare linee guida di intervento a migliaia di costruzioni ad uso abitativo diffuse sul territorio è resa più pressante dall'aumento del turismo, anche a seguito della nomina a Patrimonio dell'Umanità.
La situazione dei vari siti, inclusi quelli tutelati, è molto diversa in quanto a manutenzione, protezione e gestione. Molti sono ancora abitati e immersi nel paesaggio rurale, altri in abbandono, altri ancora trasformati strutture museali o ricettive.

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USE AND REUSE OF FUJIAN TULOU

Chasing authenticity and the challenges of tourism

The situation of the isolated rural communities living in south-east Fujian tulou deeply changed with the nomination of the property as World Heritage Site, together with the exponential growth of the number of visitors.
During the past decades the government invested in the restoration of sites and the preservation of landscape. The road network has been strongly improved and many facilities for tourists have been created. The increase of tourism positively affected the local economy through the creation of new job opportunities. Still, people are moving to urban areas of the coast, and (those who stay) from ancient buildings to more comfortable and modern houses. This is why the conservation plan includes measures to encourage the inhabitants to stay by improving living conditions (providing facilities in a way the ancient construction is preserved) and offering services at affordable rates.
The situation of the buildings is very different in terms of conservation, maintenance, and management. In fact a large number of Fujian tulou is not listed and these buildings suffer uncontrolled interventions, often the addition of new concrete or fired brick structures to the existing one.
At the same time some projects of adaptive reuse have been implemented, creating museums and accommodations for tourists, in a way the old structure is barely affected by new functions. The favorable Fujian climate and the features of the traditional massive construction allow to minimize the impact of systems.
The case of Fujian is an example of the challenges related to the conservation of a diffused heritage, which need to be addressed through the formulation of common conservation criteria and intervention guidelines, within a regulatory framework having different level of restrictions. Conservation of tulou is linked to landscape and intangible heritage protection: terraces of rice, tea and tobacco cannot survive without farmers, and the residential use should be preserved, so that the vitality of the local communities is ensured.



rec 118 FOCUS SOSTEMIBILITA'

Intervista a Kuanghan Li

Direttrice del China Heritage Program del Global Heritage Fund

Una panoramica sul lavoro di Kuanghan Li e alcuni temi di attualità riguardo alla conservazione del patrimonio e il riuso del costruito in Cina.

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Interview with Kuanghan Li

Director of Global Heritage Fund’s China Heritage Program

An overview about Kuanghan Li work and some hot topics related to cultural heritage conservation and reuse of existing buildings in China.



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SOSTENIBILITA’ SENZA TEMPO

Architettura al servizio del potere nella Cina Imperiale Qing

Tra il 1703 e il 1792 venne realizzata a Chengde una grandiosa residenza imperiale, materializzazione del potere militare della dinastia Qing e della politica di inclusione nei confronti delle popolazioni buddhiste di Tibet e Mongolia. A coronamento dei giardini imperiali vennero costruiti dodici templi, copie di illustri edifici della Cina unita. L’architettura è a servizio del potere, occorreva infatti realizzare in tempi limitati architetture scenografiche più che funzionali. Prendendo in esame il tempio Anyuan, sono analizzate le caratteristiche del mélange stilistico realizzato per veicolare un messaggio politico nonché gli accorgimenti tecnologici impiegati per ovviare alla mancanza di legname di grosso calibro.

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SUSTAINABILITY OUT OF TIME

Architecture serving power in Qing Imperial China

Chengde, two hundred kilometers northeast of Beijing. Between 1703 and 1792, during the reigns of the Manchu Kangsi and Qianlong emperors, the Qing Mountain Resort was built, including imperial palaces and gardens. Twelve Buddhist temples, known as Outlying Temples, were constructed surrounding the enclosing wall and organized radially around the court residence. They are copies of well-known religious buildings of the kingdom, which was then recently unified. The whole complex can be seen as a microcosm of the empire, symbolizing Manchu military power and will to control the Buddhist people from Tibet and Mongolia. Outlying Temples are not exact copies of their models, in fact they use local materials and traditional Chinese building techniques. The architecture serves power: huge buildings were erected in a limited amount of time, related to specific military or political events (such as the defeat of a people or the conquest of a region), creating a dramatic setting meant to impress foreign political and religious leaders. These buildings work more like theater sets then religious monuments. The reproduction of buildings from other cultures was an established practice in Imperial China, especially during non-Han dynasties. But the Chengde temples display a unique style in which Han architecture is mixed with Tibetan elements.
Anyuan Temple, built in 1764 during Qianlong reign, is an example of this stylistic mélange that was created to convey a political message. This temple is also representative of the construction techniques used during the Qing dynasty, such as jointed beams and columns. These elements were created by assembling small pieces of wood, fastened with metallic hoops and coated (with a lime-based plaster with layers of fabric or natural fibers), giving the impression of one solid piece. These technologies were known since the Song dynasty but they were widely used in this period because of the shortage of wood.
This shortage of wood during late Imperial China, together with the urgent demand of new buildings, led to the use of techniques that lowered the consumption of resources, made use of easily available natural resources, and applied traditional building knowledge.