ISSN 2283-7558

pietromaria.davoli

Pietromaria Davoli

Autore

dx

MEMBRO DEL COMITATO SCIENTIFICO di recuperoeconservazione_magazine
Ambito di lavoro per rec_magazine: Recupero e restauro sostenibili

  

Professore Ordinario di Tecnologia dell’architettura al Dipartimento di Architettura (DA), Università di Ferrara (Unife). Direttore del Centro Ricerche Architettura>Energia, DA. Laurea in Architectura con “lode e dignità di stampa” (1990) e PhD in Tecnologia dell’architettura (1995), Università di Firenze. Insegna a Unife (e all’Università di Parma), come pure in corsi di formazione post laurea e di aggiornamento professionale. Coordinatore di workshops progettuali e del Doppio Titolo congiunto di Laurea Magistrale fra Unife e università PUCPR, Brasile. Membro del “Consiglio di Sostenibilità” e del “Consiglio della Ricerca”, Unife e dell’Academic Board dell’ International PhD Architecture and Urban Planning (Unife e altri). Relatore a conferenze nazionali e internazionali. Le sue principali linee di ricerca e di didattica sono: sinergie fra ambiente, architettura (da quella “spontanea” preindustriale) e impiego di tecnologie sostenibili, in particolare per l’efficienza energetica e il comfort dei nuovi edifici; l’innovazione tecnologica, con particolare interesse per i sistemi costruttivi in legno; il “recycling” energetico-ambientale del patrimonio architettonico storicizzato. Partecipa a gruppi locali, nazionali e internazionali di ricerca. E’ autore di oltre 150 libri, articoli e papers scientifici e membro di comitati scientifici editoriali di riviste. Premiato in molti concorsi pubblici di progettazione. Coordinatore del Nucleo di progettazione, Unife, per il restauro scientifico di Palazzo Tassoni a Ferrara (espansione del DA).

rec_mag 149

Uno strumento decisionale per grandi patrimoni immobiliari

Calcolo energetico e fattibilità economica_P2

La ricerca ha l’obiettivo di sviluppare il modello per la progettazione di un software capace di gestire operazioni di efficientamento energetico su ampi patrimoni immobiliari, comprendendo analisi di fattibilità e processi di ottimizzazione, per supportare ed indirizzare l’iter decisionale. In particolare, nel caso di beni storici, l'efficientamento energetico è un'operazione estremamente complessa, costosa e difficile da governare, soprattutto se estesa a grandi portafogli: diventa allora cruciale valutare numerosi scenari alternativi di intervento per identificare le azioni che possano portare all’allocazione ottimale delle risorse, bilanciando al meglio risparmi e costi.

rec_mag 149

A programmatic decision-making tool for large property assets

Energy calculation and economic feasibility_P2

This research aims to develop a model for the design of software capable of managing energy efficiency operations in large property assets, including feasibility analysis and optimization processes, to support and direct the decision-making process. Whether applied to historic or traditional assets, energy efficiency is a complex and expensive operation, especially if broaden to large building stocks: it becomes crucial to evaluate alternative scenarios and identify the actions that can lead to the optimal resources allocation, considering the best balance between energy savings and total costs. The assessment at the early stage of economic convenience is strategic, including methods capable of controlling both the energetic behavior of the buildings and the monetary amounts involved. This study, hence, intends to elaborate a replicable model for the preventive economic evaluation in retrofit operations, especially for large property portfolios, where it is harder to define which combination of interventions leads to the optimal result. In particular, this model is processed starting from the project, "Unife sostenibile: screening energetico del patrimonio edilizio dell’ateneo di Ferrara e proposte preliminari per la fase di programmazione degli interventi di retrofit", developed by the Research Center “Achitettura> Energia (Unife).” The project chosen has analyzed a group of buildings in Ferrara, finding their thermo-hygrometric behavior, their annual consumption and other information about their installation systems, giving us a significant database necessary to implement the economic evaluation model to a detailed case-study. Thus, the goal of the research is to produce a calculation tool which can be easily used, and which can quickly identify the best retrofit scenario. Moreover, the model should be exportable and applicable in other contexts as well by varying the input data only.



rec_mag 148

Uno strumento decisionale per grandi patrimoni immobiliari

Calcolo energetico e fattibilità economica

La ricerca ha l’obiettivo di sviluppare un modello per la progettazione di un software capace di gestire interventi di efficientamento energetico su ampi patrimoni immobiliari, comprendendo analisi di fattibilità e processi di ottimizzazione, per supportare ed indirizzare l’iter decisionale. In particolare, nel caso di beni storici, l'efficientamento energetico è un'operazione estremamente complessa, costosa e difficile da governare, soprattutto se estesa a grandi portafogli: diventa allora cruciale valutare numerosi scenari alternativi di intervento per identificare le azioni che possano portare all’allocazione ottimale delle risorse, bilanciando al meglio risparmi e costi.

rec_mag 148

A programmatic decision-making tool for large property assets

Energy calculation and economic feasibility_FIRST PART

This research aims to develop a model for the design of a software capable of managing energy efficiency operations in large property assets, including feasibility analysis and optimization processes, to support and direct the decision-making process. Whether applied to historic or traditional assets, energy efficiency is a complex and expensive operation, especially if broaden to large building stocks: it becomes crucial to evaluate alternative scenarios and identify the actions that can lead to the optimal resources allocation, considering the best balance between energy savings and total costs. The assessment at the early stage of economic convenience is strategic, including methods capable of controlling both the energetic behavior of the buildings and the monetary amounts involved. This study, hence, intends to elaborate a replicable model for the preventive economic evaluation in retrofit operations, especially for large property portfolios, where it is harder to define which combination of interventions leads to the optimal result. In particular, this model is processed starting from the project, " Unife sostenibile: screening energetico del patrimonio edilizio dell’ateneo di Ferrara e proposte preliminari per la fase di programmazione degli interventi di retrofit", developed by the Research Center “Achitettura> Energia (Unife).” The project chosen has analyzed a group of buildings in Ferrara, finding their thermo-hygrometric behavior, their annual consumption and other information about their installation systems, giving us a significant database necessary to implement the economic evaluation model to a detailed case-study. Thus, the goal of the research is to produce a calculation tool which can be easily used, and which can quickly identify the best retrofit scenario. Moreover, the model should be exportable and applicable in other contexts as well by varying the input data only.



rec_mag 142

GRANDI PATRIMONI EDILIZI PUBBLICI

Strumenti di supporto alla programmazione degli interventi di retrofit energetico. Il caso dell’Università di Ferrara

L’articolo presenta i primi risultati della ricerca “Unife sostenibile. Screening energetico del patrimonio edilizio dell’ateneo di Ferrara e proposte preliminari per la fase di programmazione degli interventi di retrofit”. Il lavoro prende avvio da una duplice esigenza dell’Amministrazione universitaria: possedere appropriati strumenti per una corretta analisi energetica del proprio patrimonio edilizio indirizzata alla pianificazione di opportune strategie di efficientamento, cosi come richiesto dal D.Lgs. n. 102/2014, e produrre gli Attestati di Prestazione Energetica, obbligatori per gli edifici Pubblici.
Il lavoro ha come obiettivo la messa a punto di uno strumento di analisi e programmazione degli interventi di riqualificazione energetica, semplificato e speditivo, utile alla gestione di grandi patrimoni immobiliari.

rec_mag 142

Large public building’s stock

Large public building’s stock. Support tools for planning and retrofitting of existing buildings. The case study of the University of Ferrara

The paper presents the first part of the research “Energy screening of the building heritage of the University of Ferrara and preliminary proposals for the retrofit strategies planning phase”. The research moves from two needs of the university administration: having appropriate tools for an effective energy audit, to comply with the D.Lgs. n. 102/2014 that demands for the Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) of all public buildings in the near future; having a tool for planning an effective building refurbishment with the limited financial resources. The objective of the study is to set specific guidelines for the development of retrofit strategies on new, recent or ancient buildings based on a simplified procedure.



rec_mag 141

MIGLIORARE LA TUTELA DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURALE

ATTRAVERSO L’EFFICIENTAMENTO ENERGETICO - Parte 2

Viene documentata l’accelerazione di conoscenze e competenze maturate nel settore della riqualificazione energetico-ambientale degli edifici storici e messo in evidenza come ciò rappresenti oggi un’ulteriore assicurazione di tutela e di preservazione nel tempo. Efficaci sperimentazioni, eventi scientifico-culturali, linee guida per il retrofit sul delicato ed esigente, quanto energivoro, patrimonio storico hanno segnato indelebilmente questo percorso evolutivo di nuova progettualità, sensibilità e consapevolezza per il “restauro energetico”.
Si riportano anche esempi di tecnologie per l’efficientamento, particolarmente utili per superare alcune criticità specifiche che incontra di norma chi opera in questo campo.

rec_mag 141

IMPROVING CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE THROUGH ENERGY RETROFIT

Part 2

This paper aims to presents a brief overview of the recent history of energy and sustainable retrofitting of existing building heritage from a cultural, technical and regulatory perspective, in order to highlight recent developments in the field. Energy and sustainable retrofitting will be specifically analysed as an effective solution for the preservation of historical buildings, as opposed to previous views, which presented it as merely technical violence on this delicate built environment.
In only eight years the opinions about the subject have radically changed. A number of studies and projects documented in this paper, or just cited for brevity, helped, through forward-thinking and effective solutions, to convince even the most skeptical conservatives.
Moreover, this paper will argue that it is necessary to invest more resources in the field, in order to seize on some opportunities: first of all, implementing EU directives, by retrofitting a given quota of the country's heritage every year. Failing to act in this direction would be a significant loss for Italy, since a relevant portion of its built environment is constituted by historical buildings. A similar opportunity has unfortunately been passed upon in recent years, in occasion of rebuilding after severe earthquakes in recent years.



rec_mag 139

MIGLIORARE LA TUTELA DEL PATRIMONIO STORICO

ATTRAVERSO L’EFFICIENTAMENTO ENERGETICO - Parte 1

Una breve panoramica relativa ad alcuni momenti salienti dell’interesse crescente verso la riqualificazione energetico-ambientale del patrimonio edilizio esistente, sia dal punto di vista culturale, sia tecnico e normativo, mostra l’accelerazione di conoscenze e competenze maturate nel settore del recupero degli edifici storici. Viene messo in evidenza come l’efficientamento di quest’ultimi rappresenti oggi un’ulteriore assicurazione di tutela e di preservazione nel tempo. Non si tratta più dunque di un’azione che fino a qualche anno fa era letta come un atto di sopraffazione puramente tecnicistico-prestazionale verso la fabbrica antica e i suoi delicati “ecosistemi” e valori testimoniali.
L’orizzonte di riferimento, in circa solo otto anni, è perciò mutato radicalmente.

rec_mag 139

IMPROVING CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE THROUGH ENERGY RETROFIT

Part 1

This paper aims to presents a brief overview of the recent history of energy and sustainable retrofitting of existing building heritage from a cultural, technical and regulatory perspective, in order to highlight recent developments in the field. Energy and sustainable retrofitting will be specifically analysed as an effective solution for the preservation of historical buildings, as opposed to previous views, which presented it as merely technical violence on this delicate built environment.
In only eight years the opinions about the subject have radically changed.
A number of studies and projects documented in this paper, or just cited for brevity, helped, through forward-thinking and effective solutions, to convince even the most skeptical conservatives.
Furthermore, we will analyse the impact on the sector of cultural and scientific events and new guidelines for the retrofitting of historical buildings (e.g. the official guidelines released by MiBACT) and how these occurrences have engendered a new way of approaching projects for retrofitting of the delicate, but energy-demanding ancient built environment.
For this purpose, some example of technologies implemented for energy retrofitting will be presented, in order to show how typical issues encountered in this field can be overcome.



rec 124

LOW-BUDGET DI GRANDE FASCINO

Uno stile di intervento per il recupero di involucri architettonici con rilevanza testimoniale da adibire a nuovi spazi collettivi

In un periodo di forte limitazione della spesa pubblica e in generale di crisi economica, occorrono strategie di azione che possano aiutare, soprattutto le Pubbliche Amministrazioni, ad assicurare comunque processi di implementazione sostenibile dei servizi collettivi. Una di queste è certamente la logica del “costruire nel costruito”, costruire cioè nuove “scatole ambientali”, all’interno di grandi e antichi contenitori architettonici con significativi valori testimoniali. Una sorta di riconfigurazione ed allestimento quasi provvisorio che si fonda su un rapporto diretto e suggestivo con l’involucro originario, messo in sicurezza e fotografato nel momento della sua dimissione, conservando ogni traccia possibile del suo vissuto, talvolta anche difficile e doloroso. Vengono inoltre affrontati brevemente alcuni aspetti di rigenerazione urbana, di sostenibilità ambientale ed economica, di fattibilità tecnica e normativa.

rec 124

CAPTIVATING LOW-BUDGET

A way of recovery for architectural envelopes with a testimonial value, in order to create new spaces for the community

Because of the economic crisis and therefore spending review programs, strong action strategies are required in order to help Public Administration to ensure processes of sustainable implementation of collective services. An example can be found in the logic of “building on existing buildings”, in other words an approach for designing new “environmental boxes” inside of large and ancient architectural containers with significant historical and cultural values.
It can be considered an almost provisional settlement and reorganization based on a direct and suggestive connection with the original envelope, that is secured and photographed at the moment of its disposal, by maintaining every possible trace of its past.
After that, the community is eventually able to process this image of “temporary” and “unfinished” and make it a permanent and an identifying representation.
The kind of intervention is based on principles of low-budget and profile, with maximum reversibility and minimum impact, functional flexibility in time and, not least, zero-wasting of new territory, as we consider existing buildings can represent an opportunity of a new “active” life cycle.
What is most astonishing is the emotional result, which is figurative and captivating at the same time (documented in the case studies reported here).
This outcome results when the socio-cultural past of the building and its constructive representation have to deal with the architectural image of the new function for the community.
The paper also briefly discusses about some aspect of urban regeneration, of environmental and economic sustainability, of technical feasibility and legislation. In particular some evaluations concerning: the energy balance between the case of demolition-reconstruction and these particular interventions of recovery; the guarantees of flexibility in time and the possibility of intervention processes that can be faced in further phases; the opportunities to reduce renovation costs; the preliminary technical evaluations, with a special regard to structural analysis and lighting and ventilation conditions.



rec 119

LUCE LUNARE PER GLI EDIFICI STORICI

Ricerca progettuale e sperimentazioni per la definizione di principi di illuminazione architetturale

L’articolo presenta un approccio innovativo alla progettazione dell’illuminazione notturna da applicare in contesti architettonici storici, per fornire un’alternativa alla prassi frequente che tende a falsare la corretta lettura degli organismi edilizi. L’illuminazione, quale parte della progettazione dell’architettura stessa, ha il compito di restituire una “identità notturna” ai luoghi della città.
La strategia per raggiungere questo risultato si basa principalmente sulla riduzione dell’intensità luminosa in ambiente urbano e al contempo sulla valorizzazione degli elementi plastici, materici e cromatici delle sue costruzioni.

rec 119

MOONLIGHT ON HISTORIC BUILDINGS

Design research and experimentation to define architectural lighting strategies

The paper presents an innovative approach to lighting design, to be applied to historic architectural contexts, as an alternative to the general illumination trend that tends to distort the correct reading of the building.
Lighting design, as a part of the whole architectural project, is responsible for the restoration of the urban “night identity”.
To achieve such result, the strategy goes toward the reduction of lighting intensity in the urban environment, and the valorisation of constructions’ sculptural, material and chromatic characteristics.
To define the lighting model, the study has followed two stages: the first, to investigate the light’s physical characteristics; the second, to study and test lighting devices and identify the suitable ones for the valorisation of historic buildings. To this regard, Palazzo Tassoni Estense in Ferrara was selected as case study. To be more specific, the on-field test sessions were operated on its East façade, conceived as a sum of three overlapping layers: the first layer interests the outer skin; the second concerns indoor environments (perceived from outside through the openings); the third is made by protruded and cave-in spaces of the façade (porches, terraces, windows intradoses, singular features as decorated frames or extruded elements, etc.).
For each layer, specific lighting strategies and typologies were elaborated.
The proposition for layer 1 criticizes the exterior lighting style made with concentrated spotlights, which arbitrarily highlight certain sector and features of the façade leaving others in total darkness. As a counter-proposal, a uniform base light is suggested: a faint “moonlight-looking” effect to integrally illuminate the building elevation without emphasizing particular spots.
However, the achieved effect tends to flatten the sculptural values of the façade; therefore it is combined with the lighting strategies introduced by layer 2 and 3.
The final result is reached, after several test on the case study, thanks to the use of the LED technology, which allows for a better management of the light, electronically changing its main features (colour temperature, intensity, colour).
Finally, a lighting device prototype has been designed to turn the illumination program into practice.



rec 115

QUALI(CI)TY

Principi per la rigenerazione sostenibile di un’area brownfield secondo il modello smart city

Vengono brevemente esposti i risultati del workshop progettuale “Quali(ci)ty. Redesign and energy efficiency for a sustainable quality of life” che la Facoltà di Architettura di Ferrara è stata invitata a organizzare al MADE EXPO 2012, insieme a una mostra e ad alcune conferenze. Il tema sviluppato è stato quello della smart city e della sostenibilità ambientale, economica e sociale della città contemporanea, applicato a processi di rigenerazione di aree dismesse come rifiuto delle dinamiche di semplice demolizione e ricostruzione. Elementi fondanti sono la multiscalarità e la multidisciplinarietà del progetto.

rec 115

QUALI(CI)TY

Principles for a brownfield sustainable regeneration following a smart city model

The Faculty of Architecture - University of Ferrara (Degree in Architecture and Degree in Industrial Product Design), through the Research Center Architettura>Energia and the Material Design Laboratory, lead the 5th edition of the “Workshop of Architecture”, organized by the international journal OfArch as part of the MADE 2012. Within the expo, the design workshop and an exhibition presented the academic and research results, integrated with a rich program of conferences and debates. The workshop, titled “Quali(ci)ty. Redesign and energy efficiency for a sustainable quality of life”, examined a design-applicative theme. The specific case study consisted of the MAPRE (fruit and vegetable marketplace) and the CAP (Farmers’ Cooperative) of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Altogether, a medium-sized complex currently abandoned, located on the edges of the historical city and close to the main road connections. The high-density buildings are used as office facilities and date back to the Fifties. The area also contains a series of industrial and technical buildings, some of which deserve to be reclaimed to improve the city’s physical and functional organization. The MAPRE still works, but it will eventually moved elsewhere. A strategic component of the project is the improvement of the connections between the site itself and the historical centre. The topic is the “smart city”, with the different sustainable options identified by the local administration. This will lead to cultural attractions, to improve living standards and to generate wellness for the inhabitants. So, which expertise can be put to used by the Faculty of Architecture of Ferrara? And which guidelines can be elaborated for the renewal, the reconstruction and the regeneration of a city? Beside the specific project site, the workshop aimed at demonstrating: an efficient approach to the problem, focusing on multi-scales and a multi-disciplinary design contribution; an osmotic interface with the territory and with the requirements of the authorities and the local production realities; the need to control and optimize the mobility and the energy processes of the overall “life-cycle”. Preserving and refurbishing most of the existing constructions, instead of demolishing and building new ones, helped achieving the target.



rec 107

EDILIZIA STORICA

Un modello sperimentale per valutare le prestazioni energetiche

Si documenta la parte della ricerca che si occupa della sperimentazione di un metodo di indagine strumentale per la definizione delle prestazioni energetiche degli edifici storici allo stato di fatto. La mancanza di specifici strumenti di indagine del comportamento energetico per questo tipo di costruzione spinge a elaborare un metodo alternativo di analisi che permetta di ottenere un dato quanto più preciso possibile. Tale dato di partenza, infatti, consente di progettare al meglio l'intervento di riqualificazione energetica e guida verso la scelta di strategie operative, tecnologie e materiali più adeguati per il rispetto dei valori architettonici e testimoniali del bene e verso la conservazione della capacità intrinseca di un edificio storico di controllare il microclima interno.

rec 107

HISTORICAL BUILDINGS

An instrumental method for the measurement of energy performance

The paper presents the research about the testing of a method of survey instruments for the definition of the energy performance of historical buildings. The lack of specific tools for calculating the energy performance of ancient buildings leads to apply the general rules (UNI TS 11300) also to the historical, without taking into account some technological and morphological characteristics of the old building, which instead can make the calculation of the energy behaviour for a correct design of interventions particularly difficult.
The greatest problem lies in the difficulty of ascertaining the real composition of the housing envelope, especially in situations where the most valuable is not even possible to perform small investigative surveys. This makes it impossible, in many cases, to apply the analytical method in a comprehensive and precise way, with the risk of affecting the final result. The heterogeneity of the walls makes it extremely difficult to estimate their transmittance, because in many cases they are made of bricks of different nature, with the presence of empty spaces or mixed textures.
Another difficult aspect to consider is the presence of thermal bridges borders, such as the detachment frame-wall flues hidden, previous restoration, ceiling concealed by works of decorum or the presence of local buffers (ie basements, attics) that can cause dynamic changes to the conditions governing the thermal exchanges. Only when the building is equipped with its own heating system (if not very common), you can identify these features with the help of thermography. Otherwise, you need to trust only to the study of the sources and proceed by analogy with similar cases. This is not always possible. For this reason, it is necessary to investigate, on the one hand, the instruments now available to the designer to make these evaluations, on the other, provide simplified tools for the estimation of these parameters. The objective of the memory is to highlight the first results on the testing of a simplified method of instrumental survey.